Ordinary Graph Transformations:

GRAPH\quad TRANSFORMATIONS:\\ \\ f\left( x+a \right) ,\quad -a\quad x\quad coordinates.\\ \\ f\left( x-a \right) ,\quad +a\quad x\quad coordinates.\\ \\ f(ax),\quad Multiply\quad x\quad coordinates\quad by\quad \frac { 1 }{ a } .\\ \\ f\left( x \right) +a,\quad +a\quad y\quad coordinates.\\ \\ f\left( x \right) -a,\quad -a\quad y\quad coordinates.\\ \\ af\left( x \right) ,\quad Multiply\quad y\quad coordinates\quad by\quad a.

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